A detailed investigation of eukaryotic signaling pathways affected by bacterial products is key to our understanding of host-pathogen interactions. Cytokine expression appears to be an important initial host cell response to many bacterial products, including the Staphylococcus aureus superantigens (SAgs). While much is understood about how SAgs signal to immune cells, very little is known about the specific cellular pathways activated by SAgs on nonimmune cells such as those of the epithelium. Here, we describe methods for analyzing SAg signaling in cultured epithelial cells, which may be extrapolated to the analysis of signaling pathways induced by other bacterial ligands on a variety of cell types.

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